A large golden statue of Buddha sitting in the lotus position with a serene expression, set against a decorative backdrop with a peaked roof and intricate patterns, under a clear blue sky.
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Hiranya Varna Mahavihar

Have you ever wondered about the fascinating history and intricate architecture of Hiranya Varna Mahavihar? This ancient Buddhist monastery, also known as the Golden Temple, has stood for centuries as a testament to Nepal's rich cultural heritage. But there's more to this remarkable site than meets the eye. From its majestic main gate to the captivating sculptures adorning its walls, each element of the Mahavihar holds a story waiting to be discovered. And that's not all – stay tuned to uncover the secrets of the Swayambhu Stupa, a hidden gem within the temple grounds. Get ready to embark on a journey of exploration and enlightenment as we delve into the wonders of Hiranya Varna Mahavihar.


What is the historical background of Hiranya Varna Mahavihar, the historic Buddhist monastery in Patan, Nepal? Built in the 12th century by King Bhaskar Varman, Hiranya Varna Mahavihar holds a significant place in Nepal's cultural heritage. The temple is renowned for its unique architectural features and the legend of rats and cats. This legend tells the tale of how the temple's construction was halted by a rat infestation until cats were introduced to control the rodents. The temple's design incorporates elements inspired by this legend, with intricate carvings of rats and cats adorning its walls.

Over the years, Hiranya Varna Mahavihar has undergone various restoration efforts to preserve its historical and cultural significance. The most recent restoration began in July 2021, following structural damage caused by the devastating earthquake of 2015. This initiative aims to ensure the temple's longevity, allowing future generations to appreciate its beauty and significance.

The monastery is adorned with stunning sculptures and carvings, showcasing the rich artistic heritage of the region. These include depictions of Dharmadhatu mandala, which represents the cosmos and the interdependence of all beings, Padmapani Lokeshvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion, and Mahakala, the fierce protector deity. Each sculpture tells a story and adds to the overall spiritual atmosphere of the temple.

In addition to its architectural and artistic treasures, Hiranya Varna Mahavihar houses the sacred Buddhist text Pragya Paramita, which is over 800 years old. This text is highly revered and serves as a spiritual guide for those who visit the monastery. The temple also follows the tradition of having a young boy under 12 as the principal priest, symbolizing the passing of knowledge and wisdom from one generation to the next.

The historical background of Hiranya Varna Mahavihar is rich and fascinating, reflecting the deep-rooted Buddhist traditions and cultural heritage of Nepal. This iconic Buddhist monastery stands as a testament to the country's religious and architectural legacy, inviting visitors to explore its history and spirituality.


Hiranya Varna Mahavihar showcases intricate stone carvings and sculptures, embodying the rich architectural heritage of the historic Buddhist monastery in Patan, Nepal. The architectural design of the temple reflects the deep-rooted Buddhist beliefs and the historical significance of the site.

As you enter the temple, you will be captivated by the stunning stone carvings that adorn the main gate. The entrance features a vajra, a symbol of spiritual power, and is flanked by majestic stone lions, symbolizing strength and protection. These carvings not only serve as decorative elements but also hold symbolic meaning in Buddhist culture.

Inside the temple, the main shrine is adorned with a silver torana, a ceremonial gateway, which depicts Five Buddhas and Vajrasattva. The torana is intricately crafted, showcasing the exceptional skill and attention to detail of the artisans. The silver torana not only adds to the visual appeal of the shrine but also holds great religious significance for the devotees.

As you explore further, you will come across numerous brass statues of Lokeshwaras and Manjushree. These statues are meticulously crafted, showcasing the craftsmanship of the artisans. Each statue represents a different deity or manifestation, embodying the diverse Buddhist pantheon.

The intricate stone carvings, sculptures, and brass statues found throughout Hiranya Varna Mahavihar are a testament to the architectural brilliance of the monastery. They not only enhance the aesthetic appeal of the temple but also serve as important symbols of Buddhist beliefs and practices. The architectural design of the temple, combined with its rich historical significance, makes Hiranya Varna Mahavihar a true gem in the heart of Patan.

Main Gate

The main gate of Hiranya Varna Mahavihar is adorned with intricate stone sculptures and is flanked by majestic lion statues, symbolizing strength and protection. As you enter through the main gate, you will be greeted by a sight of extraordinary craftsmanship and religious symbolism. The stone sculptures on the gate depict various Buddhist motifs, each telling a story and conveying a deeper meaning. These intricate carvings showcase the dedication and skill of the artisans who created them.

One notable feature of the main gate is the vajra symbol, which marks the entrance to the main shrine. The vajra symbol, often referred to as the "thunderbolt," represents both thunderbolt-like strength and diamond-like indestructibility. It serves as a reminder of the power and resilience of the Buddhist teachings.

Guarding the outer gate of the temple are the lion statues. These statues, with their fierce expressions and majestic postures, symbolize strength and protection. They stand as guardians of the Mahavihar, ensuring the safety and sanctity of the temple.

As you pass through the main gate, you will be captivated by the rich architectural details that adorn every corner of Hiranya Varna Mahavihar. From intricately carved pillars to delicate sculptures, the temple showcases the exquisite craftsmanship of the artisans who built it.

The main gate of Hiranya Varna Mahavihar is not just an entrance, but a doorway to a world of religious symbolism and architectural beauty. It invites you to explore the temple complex and immerse yourself in the rich history and traditions of Buddhism.


As you explore Hiranya Varna Mahavihar, the sculptures within the temple complex showcase the exquisite craftsmanship and religious significance of Buddhist art. The intricate carvings found throughout the Mahavihar transport you to a world of divine beauty and spiritual devotion. Here are some notable features of the sculptures you will encounter:

  1. Stone Lions: As you enter the temple, you will be greeted by majestic stone lions guarding the entrance. These symbolic guardians represent strength and protection, creating a sense of reverence and awe.
  2. Traditional Drinking Fountain: Within the Mahavihar, you will find a traditional drinking fountain known as "tute dhara." This intricately designed fountain not only quenches the physical thirst of visitors but also symbolizes the spiritual cleansing and purification of the soul.
  3. Brass Statues: Adorning the temple's interior are exquisite brass statues depicting elephants, monkeys, mandalas, and images of Bhairava. These meticulously crafted statues add a touch of opulence and splendor to the temple, enhancing its cultural richness.
  4. Golden Image and Lokeshwaras: The main shrine houses a golden image of Gautam Buddha, radiating serenity and enlightenment. Surrounding the main image are brass statues of Lokeshwaras and Manjushree, representing the compassionate and wise aspects of Buddhism.

Additionally, as you explore the Nagbahal courtyard, you will come across a captivating painting of a serpent god. This artwork adds another layer of cultural richness to the temple, highlighting the interplay between religion and art.

The sculptures at Hiranya Varna Mahavihar not only showcase the mastery of craftsmanship but also serve as a testament to the deep religious devotion of the Buddhist community. They provide a glimpse into the rich cultural heritage and artistic traditions of Nepal, inviting you to appreciate the beauty and spiritual significance of Buddhist art.

Swayambhu Stupa

Perched atop a hill overlooking the Kathmandu Valley, the Swayambhu Stupa, also known as the Monkey Temple, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Nepal. This sacred Buddhist site, with a history dating back over 2,500 years, is a must-visit for those seeking spiritual enlightenment and breathtaking views. As you approach the stupa, you'll be greeted by colorful prayer flags fluttering in the wind, adding a vibrant touch to the serene atmosphere. The stupa itself is adorned with the iconic Buddha eyes, symbolizing wisdom and compassion, and a majestic golden spire that shines brightly in the sunlight.

To reach the main stupa, you'll need to climb 365 steps, each step bringing you closer to a sense of tranquility and inner peace. As you ascend, take a moment to soak in the panoramic views of the Kathmandu Valley below. The sight is nothing short of awe-inspiring, offering a glimpse into the rich cultural heritage of Nepal.

Once you reach the top, you'll find yourself in the presence of the Swayambhu Stupa, a magnificent structure that exudes a sense of divinity. Take a moment to offer your prayers and witness the devotion of fellow visitors. The Monkey Temple is not only a place of worship but also a gathering spot for locals and tourists alike, providing a glimpse into the vibrant tapestry of Nepali culture.